Table_1_Temporal Stability of Bacterial Communities in Antarctic Sponges.docx (84.64 kB)
Download file

Table_1_Temporal Stability of Bacterial Communities in Antarctic Sponges.docx

Download (84.64 kB)
posted on 22.11.2019, 13:28 authored by César A. Cárdenas, Alejandro Font, Georg Steinert, Rodolfo Rondon, Marcelo González-Aravena

Marine sponges host dense, diverse, and species-specific microbial communities around the globe; however, most of the current knowledge is restricted to species from tropical and temperate waters. Only recently, some studies have assessed the microbiome of a few Antarctic sponges; however, contrary to low mid-latitude sponges, the knowledge about temporal (stability) patterns in the bacterial communities of Antarctic sponges is absent. Here, we studied the temporal patterns of bacterial communities in the Antarctic sponges Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata, Isodictya sp., Hymeniacidon torquata, and Tedania (Tedaniopsis) wellsae that were tagged in situ and monitored during three austral summers over a 24-month period. By using amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene we found that the microbiome differed between species. In general, bacterial communities were dominated by gammaproteobacterial OTUs; however, M. acerata showed the most distinct pattern, being dominated by a single betaproteobacterial OTU. The analysis at OTU level (defined at 97% sequence similarity) showed a highly stable bacterial community through time, despite the abnormal seawater temperatures (reaching 3°C) and rates of temperature increase of 0.15°C day–1 recorded in austral summer 2017. Sponges were characterized by a small core bacterial community that accounted for a high percentage of the abundance. Overall, no consistent changes in core OTU abundance were recorded for all studied species, confirming a high temporal stability of the microbiome. In addition, predicted functional pathway profiles showed that the most abundant pathways among all sponges belonged mostly to metabolism pathway groups (e.g., amino acid, carbohydrate, energy, and nucleotide). The predicted functional pathway patterns differed among the four sponge species. However, no clear temporal differences were detected supporting what was found in terms of the relatively stable composition of the bacterial communities.