Table_1_Extracellular ATP Increases Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Cells in a P2 Receptor Dependent Manner but Does Not Contribute to Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance.docx
Saturated fatty acids such as palmitate contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes by reducing insulin sensitivity, increasing inflammation and potentially contributing to anabolic resistance. We hypothesized that palmitate-induced ATP release from skeletal muscle cells may increase inflammatory cytokine production and contribute to insulin/anabolic resistance in an autocrine/paracrine manner. In C2C12 myotubes differentiated at physiological glucose concentrations (5.5 mM), palmitate treatment (16 h) at concentrations greater than 250 μM increased release of ATP and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MIF, significantly blunted insulin and amino acid-induced signaling and reduced mitochondrial function. In contrast to our hypothesis, degradation of extracellular ATP using apyrase, did not alter palmitate-induced insulin resistance nor alter release of cytokines. Moreover, treatment with ATPγS (16 h), a non-hydrolysable ATP analog, in the absence of palmitate, did not diminish insulin sensitivity. Acute treatment with ATPγS produced insulin mimetic roles; increased phosphorylation of PKB (aka AKT), S6K1 and ERK and enhanced GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in the absence of exogenous insulin. The increases in PKB and S6K1 phosphorylation were completely prevented by pre-incubation with broad spectrum purinergic receptor (P2R) blockers PPADs and suramin but not by P2 × 4 or P2 × 7 blockers 5-BDBD or A-438079, respectively. Moreover, ATPγS increased IL-6 yet decreased MIF release, similar to the cytokine profile produced by exercise. Acute and chronic treatment with ATPγS increased glycolytic rate in a manner that was differentially inhibited by PPADs and suramin, suggesting heterogeneous P2R activation in the control of cellular metabolism. In summary, our data suggest that the palmitate-induced increase in ATP does not contribute to insulin/anabolic resistance in a cell autonomous manner.