Table2_Barrier Perturbation in Porcine Peyer’s Patches by Tumor Necrosis Factor is Associated With a Dysregulation of Claudins.docx
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been described as one of the main mediators of intestinal inflammatory diseases, affecting the composition of tight junction (TJ) proteins and leading to a disruption of the epithelial barrier. An intact intestinal barrier is mandatory, because the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer’s patches represents the first defense line of the intestinal immune system and ensures a controlled uptake of antigens from the gut lumen. In the current study, we have analyzed the detailed effects of TNF on the follicle-associated epithelium of porcine Peyer’s patches by applying the Ussing chamber technique. Epithelial tissue specimens of Peyer’s patches and the surrounding villus epithelium were mounted into conventional Ussing chambers and incubated with TNF for 10 h. The transepithelial resistance, representing epithelial barrier function of the tissue, was recorded. A reduction of transepithelial resistance was detected after 8 h in Peyer’s patch tissue specimens, whereas the villus epithelium was not significantly affected by TNF. Subsequent molecular analysis of TJ protein expression revealed a marked decrease of claudin-1 and -4, and an increase of claudin-2. In neighboring villus epithelium, no significant changes in the expression of TJ proteins could be shown. A strong increase of TNF receptor-2 (TNFR-2) could also be detected in Peyer’s patches, in agreement with the major role of this receptor in Peyer’s patches. Our findings were in accordance with changes detected by confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy. The regulation of TNF effects via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was analyzed in blocking experiments. Our detailed analysis is the first to show that TNF affects the barrier function of the follicle-associated epithelium of porcine Peyer’s patches but has no effects on the villus epithelium. These findings reveal not only the basic differences of epithelial barrier function between the two structures, but also the significance of Peyer’s patches as a primary mucosal immune defense.