Data_Sheet_1_Protective Regulatory T Cell Immune Response Induced by Intranasal Immunization With the Live-Attenuated Pneumococcal Vaccine SPY1 via the Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Smad2/3 Pathway.docx (4.02 MB)
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Data_Sheet_1_Protective Regulatory T Cell Immune Response Induced by Intranasal Immunization With the Live-Attenuated Pneumococcal Vaccine SPY1 via the Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Smad2/3 Pathway.docx

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posted on 02.08.2018 by Hongyi Liao, Xiaoqiong Peng, Lingling Gan, Jiafu Feng, Yue Gao, Shenghui Yang, Xuexue Hu, Liping Zhang, Yibing Yin, Hong Wang, Xiuyu Xu

Vaccine effectiveness is mainly determined by the mechanism mediating protection, emphasizing the importance of unraveling the protective mechanism for novel pneumococcal vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that the regulatory T cell (Treg) immune response has a protective effect against pneumococcal infection elicited by the live-attenuated pneumococcal vaccine SPY1. However, the mechanism underlying this protective effect remains unclear. In this study, a short synthetic peptide (P17) was used to downregulate Tregs during immunization and subsequent challenges in a mouse model. In immunized mice, increase in immune cytokines (IL-12p70, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17A) induced by SPY1 were further upregulated by P17 treatment, whereas the decrease in the infection-associated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by SPY1 was reversed. P17 also inhibited the increase in the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and inflammatory mediator IL-6 in immunized mice. More severe pulmonary injuries and more dramatic inflammatory responses with worse survival in P17-treated immunized mice indicated the indispensable role of the Treg immune response in protection against pneumococcal infection by maintaining a balance among acquired immune responses stimulated by SPY1. Further studies revealed that the significant elevation of active transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)1 by SPY1 vaccination activated FOXP3, leading to increased frequencies of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. Moreover, SPY1 vaccination elevated the levels of Smad2/3 and phosphor-Smad2/3 and downregulated the negative regulatory factor Smad7 in a time-dependent manner during pneumococcal infection, and these changes were reversed by P17 treatment. These results illustrate that SPY1-stimulated TGF-β1 induced the generation of SPY1-specific Tregs via the Smad2/3 signaling pathway. In addition, SPY1-specific Tregs may participate in protection via the enhanced expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4. The data presented here extend our understanding of how the SPY1-induced acquired Treg immune response contributes to protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines and may be helpful for the evaluation of live vaccines and other mucosal vaccine candidates.

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