Data_Sheet_1_The Decade-Long Chinese Methadone Maintenance Therapy Yields Large Population and Economic Benefits for Drug Users in Reducing Harm, HIV and HCV Disease Burden.docx

Objectives: We aimed to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the population impact of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for its future program planning.

Methods: We conducted a literature review of the effects of MMT in China on HIV and HCV disease burden, injecting, and sexual behaviors and drug-related harm during 2004–2015. Data synthesis and analysis were conducted to obtain the pooled estimates of parameters for a mathematical model which was constructed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the program.

Results: Based on a review of 134 articles, this study demonstrated that MMT is highly effective in reducing crime-related, high risk sexual, and injecting behaviors. The model estimated US$1,037 m which was invested in MMT from 2004 to 2015 has prevented 29,463 (15,325–43,600) new HIV infections, 130,563 (91,580–169,546) new HCV infections, 10,783 (10,380–11,187) deaths related to HIV, HCV and drug-related harm, and 338,920.0 (334,596.2–343,243.7) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The costs for each prevented HIV infection, HCV infection, death, and DALY were $35,206.8 (33,594.8–36,981.4), $7,944.7 ($7,714.4–8,189.2), $96,193.4 (92,726.0–99,930.2), and $3,060.6 ($3,022.0–3,100.1) respectively.

Conclusion: The Chinese MMT program has been effective and cost-effective in reducing injecting, injecting-related risk behaviors and adversities due to HIV/HCV infection and drug-related harm among drug users.