Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Virulence Genes in Wheat Karnal Bunt Fungus Tilletia indica Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA-Genotyping by Sequencing Approach
Tilletia indica is a quarantine fungal pathogen that poses a serious biosecurity threat to wheat-exporting countries. Acquiring genetic data for the pathogenicity characters of T. indica is still a challenge for wheat breeders and geneticists. In the current study, double digest restriction-site associated-DNA genotyping by sequencing was carried out for 39 T. indica isolates collected from different locations in India. The generated libraries upon sequencing were with 3,346,759 raw reads on average, and 151 x 2 nucleotides read length. The obtained bases per read ranged from 87 Mb in Ti 25 to 1,708 Mb in Ti 39, with 505 Mb on average per read. Trait association mapping was performed using 41,473 SNPs, infection phenotyping data, population structure, and Kinship matrix, to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to virulence genes. Population structure analysis divided the T. indica population in India into three subpopulations with genetic mixing in each subpopulation. However, the division was not in accordance with the degree of virulence. Trait association mapping revealed the presence of 13 SNPs associated with virulence. Using sequences analysis tools, one gene (g4132) near a significant SNP was predicted to be an effector, and its relative expression was assessed and found upregulated upon infection.
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