Association of Coffee, Tea, and Caffeine Consumption With All-Cause Risk and Specific Mortality for Cardiovascular Disease Patients
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between coffee, tea, caffeine consumption and risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) death in CVD population.Methods
This cohort study included 626 CVD participants aged ≥18 years old who derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) database 2003–2006. The end time of follow-up was 2015, and with a median follow-up time of 113.5 (63, 133) months. CVD death was defined as a death caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary heart disease (CHD), angina pectoris, heart attack or stroke. Cox model and competitive-risk model were used to explore the relationship of coffee, tea, caffeine, decaffeinated coffee/tea on the risk of the all-cause death and CVD death for CVD population, respectively. Additionally, we explored the effect of urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites on all-cause death.Results
All patients were divided into survival group (n = 304), non-CVD death group (n = 223), and CVD death group (n = 99). The incidence of all-cause death and CVD death was ~51.44 and 15.81% in the study. After adjusting age, body mass index (BMI), cancer, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), energy, the history of CVD medications, carbohydrate and family income to poverty ratio (PIR), the results suggested coffee, caffeine, iced tea and hot tea consumption (≥4 cups per day) were associated with an increased risk of the all-cause death in CVD patients; while hot tea (1–3 cups per day), decaffeinated coffee/iced tea/hot tea could reduce the risk of the all-cause death. Likewise, coffee, caffeine, iced tea (≥4 cups per day), hot tea, decaffeinated iced tea/ hot tea (Always) could enhance the risk of the CVD death in CVD population. We also found that 1-methylxanthine showed a significant positive association on the risk of all-cause death in CVD population.Conclusion
Our study indicated that higher consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine could increase the risk of all-cause and CVD death for CVD patients.
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