table_1.docx

Perinatal exposure of Bisphenol A (BPA) to rodents modifies their behavior in later life. To understand how BPA modifies their neurodevelopmental process, we first searched for BPA responsive genes from androgen and estrogen receptor signaling target genes by polymerase chain reaction array in the neonatal male rat brain. We used a transgenic strain of Wistar rats carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) promoter to investigate the possible interaction of BPA responsive genes and GnIH neurons. We found upregulation of transmembrane protease serine 2 (Tmprss2), an androgen receptor signaling target gene, and downregulation of Forkhead box A1 (Foxa1), an ER signaling target gene, in the medial amygdala of male rats that were subcutaneously administered with BPA from day 1 to 3. Tmprss2-immunoreactive (ir) cells were distributed in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus in 3 days old but not in 1-month-old male rats. Density of Tmprss2-ir cells in the medial amygdala was increased by daily administration of BPA from day 1 to 3. Tmprss2 immunoreactivity was observed in 26.5% of GnIH neurons clustered from the ventral region of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus to the dorsal region of the arcuate nucleus of 3-day-old male rat hypothalamus. However, Tmprss2 mRNA expression significantly decreased in the amygdala and hypothalamus of 1-month-old male rats. Foxa1 mRNA expression was higher in the hypothalamus than the amygdala in 3 days old male rats. Intense Foxa1-ir cells were only found in the peduncular part of lateral hypothalamus of 3-day-old male rats. Density of Foxa1-ir cells in the hypothalamus was decreased by daily administration of BPA from day 1 to 3. Foxa1 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus also significantly decreased at 1 month. These results suggest that BPA disturbs the neurodevelopmental process and behavior of rats later in their life by modifying Tmprss2 and Foxa1 expressions in the brain.