Video_6_Real-Time Optical Mapping of Contracting Cardiac Tissues With GPU-Accelerated Numerical Motion Tracking.MP4 (6.71 MB)
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Video_6_Real-Time Optical Mapping of Contracting Cardiac Tissues With GPU-Accelerated Numerical Motion Tracking.MP4

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posted on 18.05.2022, 04:18 authored by Jan Lebert, Namita Ravi, George Kensah, Jan Christoph

Optical mapping of action potentials or calcium transients in contracting cardiac tissues are challenging because of the severe sensitivity of the measurements to motion. The measurements rely on the accurate numerical tracking and analysis of fluorescence changes emitted by the tissue as it moves, and inaccurate or no tracking can produce motion artifacts and lead to imprecise measurements that can prohibit the analysis of the data. Recently, it was demonstrated that numerical motion-tracking and -stabilization can effectively inhibit motion artifacts, allowing highly detailed simultaneous measurements of electrophysiological phenomena and tissue mechanics. However, the field of electromechanical optical mapping is still young and under development. To date, the technique is only used by a few laboratories, the processing of the video data is time-consuming and performed offline post-acquisition as it is associated with a considerable demand for computing power. In addition, a systematic review of numerical motion tracking algorithms applicable to optical mapping data is lacking. To address these issues, we evaluated 5 open-source numerical motion-tracking algorithms implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU) and compared their performance when tracking and compensating motion and measuring optical traces in voltage- or calcium-sensitive optical mapping videos of contracting cardiac tissues. Using GPU-accelerated numerical motion tracking, the processing times necessary to analyze optical mapping videos become substantially reduced. We demonstrate that it is possible to track and stabilize motion and create motion-compensated optical maps in real-time with low-resolution (128 x 128 pixels) and high resolution (800 x 800 pixels) optical mapping videos acquired at 500 and 40 fps, respectively. We evaluated the tracking accuracies and motion-stabilization capabilities of the GPU-based algorithms on synthetic optical mapping videos, determined their sensitivity to fluorescence signals and noise, and demonstrate the efficacy of the Farnebäck algorithm with recordings of contracting human cardiac cell cultures and beating hearts from 3 different species (mouse, rabbit, pig) imaged with 4 different high-speed cameras. GPU-accelerated processing provides a substantial increase in processing speed, which could open the path for more widespread use of numerical motion tracking and stabilization algorithms during routine optical mapping studies.