Video_6_Glyoxylase-1 combats dicarbonyl stress and right ventricular dysfunction in rodent pulmonary arterial hypertension.avi
Heightened glycolytic flux is associated with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methylglyoxal, a glycolysis byproduct, is a highly reactive dicarbonyl that has toxic effects via non-enzymatic post-translational modifications (protein glycation). Methylglyoxal is degraded by the glyoxylase system, which includes the rate-limiting enzyme glyoxylase-1 (GLO1), to combat dicarbonyl stress. However, the potential consequences of excess protein glycation on RV function are unknown.Methods
Bioinformatics analysis of previously identified glycated proteins predicted how protein glycation regulated cardiac biology. Methylglyoxal treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes evaluated the consequences of excess protein glycation on mitochondrial respiration. The effects of adeno-associated virus serotype 9-mediated (AAV9) GLO1 expression on RV function in monocrotaline rats were quantified with echocardiography and hemodynamic studies. Immunoblots and immunofluorescence were implemented to probe the effects of AAV-Glo1 on total protein glycation and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and fatty acid binding protein levels.Results
In silico analyses highlighted multiple mitochondrial metabolic pathways may be affected by protein glycation. Exogenous methylglyoxal minimally altered mitochondrial respiration when cells metabolized glucose, however methylglyoxal depressed FAO. AAV9-Glo1 increased RV cardiomyocyte GLO1 expression, reduced total protein glycation, partially restored mitochondrial density, and decreased lipid accumulation. In addition, AAV9-Glo1 increased RV levels of FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein, and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase trifunctional multienzyme complex subunits alpha and beta (HADHA and HADHB), the two subunits of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein for FAO. Finally, AAV9-Glo1 blunted RV fibrosis and improved RV systolic and diastolic function.Conclusion
Excess protein glycation promotes RV dysfunction in preclinical PAH, potentially through suppression of FAO.