Video_6_Automatic Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease From Chest Computed Tomography in Systemic Sclerosis.MOV
Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and its diagnosis contributes to early treatment decisions.
Purposes: To quantify ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) from chest CT images using an automatic quantification method based on the computation of the weight of interstitial lung opacities.
Methods: Ninety-four patients with SSc underwent CT, forced vital capacity (FVC), and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) tests. Seventy-three healthy individuals without radiological evidence of lung disease served as controls. After lung and airway segmentation, the ratio between the weight of interstitial opacities [densities between −500 and +50 Hounsfield units (HU)] and the total lung weight (densities between −1,000 and +50 HU) was used as an ILD indicator (ILD[%] = 100 × [LW(−500 to +50HU)/LW(−1, 000 to +50HU)]). The cutoff of normality between controls and SSc was determined with a receiver operator characteristic curve. The severity of pulmonary involvement in SSc patients was also assessed by calculating Z scores of ILD relative to the average interstitial opacities in controls. Accordingly, SSc-ILD was classified as SSc Limited-ILD (Z score < 3) and SSc Extensive-ILD (Z score ≥ 3 or FVC < 70%).
Results: Seventy-eight (83%) SSc patients were classified as presenting SSc-ILD (optimal ILD threshold of 23.4%, 0.83 sensitivity, 0.92 specificity, and 0.94 area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 95% CI from 0.89 to 0.96, 0.93 positive predictive value, and 0.81 negative predictive value, p < 0.001) and exhibited radiological attenuations compatible with interstitial pneumonia dispersed in the lung parenchyma. Thirty-six (38%) patients were classified as SSc Extensive-ILD (ILD threshold ≥ 29.6% equivalent to a Z score ≥ 3) and 42 (45%) as SSc Limited-ILD. Eighteen (50%) patients with SSc Extensive-ILD presented FVC < 70%, being only five patients classified exclusively based on FVC. SSc Extensive-ILD also presented lower DLCO (57.9 ± 17.9% vs. 73.7 ± 19.8%; p < 0.001) and total lung volume (2,916 ± 674 vs. 4,286 ± 1,136, p < 0.001) compared with SSc Limited-ILD.
Conclusion: The proposed method seems to provide an alternative to identify and quantify the extension of ILD in patients with SSc, mitigating the subjectivity of semiquantitative analyzes based on visual scores.
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