Video_1_Molecular Insights Into Neutrophil Biology From the Zebrafish Perspective: Lessons From CD18 Deficiency.avi (1.55 MB)
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Video_1_Molecular Insights Into Neutrophil Biology From the Zebrafish Perspective: Lessons From CD18 Deficiency.avi

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posted on 07.09.2021, 04:34 authored by Almke Bader, Jincheng Gao, Thibaud Rivière, Bettina Schmid, Barbara Walzog, Daniela Maier-Begandt

Neutrophils are key players in innate immunity and originate from the bone marrow of the adult mammalian organism. In mammals, mature neutrophils are released from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood where they circulate until their recruitment to sites of inflammation in a multistep adhesion cascade. Here, adhesion molecules of the β2 integrin family (CD11/CD18) are critically required for the initial neutrophil adhesion to the inflamed endothelium and several post-adhesion steps allowing their extravasation into the inflamed tissue. Within the mammalian tissue, interstitial neutrophil migration can occur widely independent of β2 integrins. This is in sharp contrast to neutrophil recruitment in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) where neutrophils originate from the caudal hematopoietic tissue and mainly migrate interstitially to sites of lesion upon the early onset of inflammation. However, neutrophils extravasate from the circulation to the inflamed tissue in zebrafish larvae at later-time points. Although zebrafish larvae are a widely accepted model system to analyze neutrophil trafficking in vivo, the functional impact of β2 integrins for neutrophil trafficking during acute inflammation is completely unknown in this model. In this study, we generated zebrafish with a genetic deletion of CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Sequence alignments demonstrated a high similarity of the amino acid sequences between zebrafish and human CD18 especially in the functionally relevant I-like domain. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain of CD18 harbors two highly conserved NXXF motifs suggesting that zebrafish CD18 may share functional properties of human CD18. Accordingly, CD18 knock-out (KO) zebrafish larvae displayed the key symptoms of patients suffering from leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) type I due to defects in ITGB2, the gene for CD18. Importantly, CD18 KO zebrafish larvae showed reduced neutrophil trafficking to sites of sterile inflammation despite the fact that an increased number of neutrophils was detectable in the circulation. By demonstrating the functional importance of CD18 for neutrophil trafficking in zebrafish larvae, our findings shed new light on neutrophil biology in vertebrates and introduce a new model organism for studying LAD type I.