Video_1_Etiology-Discriminative Multimodal Imaging of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Synchrotron-Based Assessment of Microstructural Tissue Remodeli.MP4 (12.78 MB)
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Video_1_Etiology-Discriminative Multimodal Imaging of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Synchrotron-Based Assessment of Microstructural Tissue Remodeling.MP4

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posted on 25.05.2021, 04:54 by Filip Loncaric, Patricia Garcia-Canadilla, Ana Garcia-Alvarez, Laura Sanchis, Susana Prat, Adelina Doltra, Eduard Quintana, Daniel Pereda, Hector Dejea, Anne Bonnin, Marta Sitges, Bart Bijnens

Background: Distinguishing the etiology of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is clinically relevant due to patient outcomes and management. Easily obtained, echocardiography-based myocardial deformation patterns may improve standard non-invasive phenotyping, however, the relationship between deformation phenotypes and etiology-related, microstructural cardiac remodeling has not been reported. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging (X-PCI) can provide high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) information on myocardial microstructure. The aim of this pilot study is to apply a multiscale, multimodality protocol in LVH patients undergoing septal myectomy to visualize in vivo and ex vivo myocardial tissue and relate non-invasive LVH imaging phenotypes to the underlying synchrotron-assessed microstructure.

Methods and findings: Three patients (P1-3) undergoing septal myectomy were comprehensively studied. Medical history was collected, and patients were imaged with echocardiography/cardiac magnetic resonance prior to the procedure. Myocardial tissue samples obtained during the myectomy were imaged with X-PCI generating high spatial resolution images (0.65 μm) to assess myocyte organization, 3D connective tissue distribution and vasculature remodeling. Etiology-centered non-invasive imaging phenotypes, based on findings of hypertrophy and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) distribution, and enriched by speckle-tracking and tissue Doppler echocardiography deformation patterns, identified a clear phenotype of hypertensive heart disease (HTN) in P1, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in P2/P3. X-PCI showed extensive interstitial fibrosis with normal 3D myocyte and collagen organization in P1. In comparison, in P2/P3, X-PCI showed 3D myocyte and collagen disarray, as well as arterial wall hypertrophy with increased perivascular collagen, compatible with sarcomere-mutation HCM in both patients. The results of this pilot study suggest the association of non-invasive deformation phenotypes with etiology-related myocyte and connective tissue matrix disorganization. A larger patient cohort could enable statistical analysis of group characteristics and the assessment of deformation pattern reproducibility.

Conclusion: High-resolution, 3D X-PCI provides novel ways to visualize myocardial remodeling in LVH, and illustrates the correspondence of macrostructural and functional non-invasive phenotypes with invasive microstructural phenotypes, suggesting the potential clinical utility of non-invasive myocardial deformation patterns in phenotyping LVH in everyday clinical practice.

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