Video3_Two Complementary Signaling Pathways Depict Eukaryotic Chemotaxis: A Mechanochemical Coupling Model.AVI (689.37 kB)
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Video3_Two Complementary Signaling Pathways Depict Eukaryotic Chemotaxis: A Mechanochemical Coupling Model.AVI

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posted on 17.11.2021, 04:51 by Lüwen Zhou, Shiliang Feng, Long Li, Shouqin Lü, Yan Zhang, Mian Long

Many eukaryotic cells, including neutrophils and Dictyostelium cells, are able to undergo correlated random migration in the absence of directional cues while reacting to shallow gradients of chemoattractants with exquisite precision. Although progress has been made with regard to molecular identities, it remains elusive how molecular mechanics are integrated with cell mechanics to initiate and manipulate cell motility. Here, we propose a two dimensional (2D) cell migration model wherein a multilayered dynamic seesaw mechanism is accompanied by a mechanical strain-based inhibition mechanism. In biology, these two mechanisms can be mapped onto the biochemical feedback between phosphoinositides (PIs) and Rho GTPase and the mechanical interplay between filamin A (FLNa) and FilGAP. Cell migration and the accompanying morphological changes are demonstrated in numerical simulations using a particle-spring model, and the diffusion in the cell membrane are simulations using a one dimensional (1D) finite differences method (FDM). The fine balance established between endogenous signaling and a mechanically governed inactivation scheme ensures the endogenous cycle of self-organizing pseudopods, accounting for the correlated random migration. Furthermore, this model cell manifests directional and adaptable responses to shallow graded signaling, depending on the overwhelming effect of the graded stimuli guidance on strain-based inhibition. Finally, the model cell becomes trapped within an obstacle-ridden spatial region, manifesting a shuttle run for local explorations and can chemotactically “escape”, illustrating again the balance required in the complementary signaling pathways.

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