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Platelet activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which often leads to potentially fatal ischemic events at later stages of the disease. Platelets and platelet microvesicles (PMVs) contain large amounts of microRNA (miRNA), which contributes largely to the pool of circulating miRNAs. Hence, they represent a promising option for the development of innovative diagnostic biomarkers, that can be specific for the underlying etiology. Circulating miRNAs can be responsible for intracellular communication and may have a biological effect on target cells. As miRNAs associated to both cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus can be measured by means of a wide array of techniques, they can be exploited as an innovative class of smart disease biomarkers. In this manuscript, we provide an outline of miRNAs associated with platelet function and reactivity (miR-223, miR-126, miR-197, miR-191, miR-21, miR-150, miR-155, miR-140, miR-96, miR-98) that should be evaluated as novel biomarkers to improve diagnostics and treatment of CVD.