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posted on 04.04.2018, 04:37 by Katrin Zlabinger, Dominika Lukovic, Rayyan Hemetsberger, Alfred Gugerell, Johannes Winkler, Ljubica Mandic, Denise Traxler, Andreas Spannbauer, Susanne Wolbank, Gerald Zanoni, Christoph Kaun, Aniko Posa, Andrea Gyenes, Zsolt Petrasi, Örs Petnehazy, Imre Repa, Renate Hofer-Warbinek, Rainer de Martin, Florian Gruber, Silvia Charwat, Kurt Huber, Noemi Pavo, Imre J. Pavo, Noemi Nyolczas, Dara L. Kraitchman, Mariann Gyöngyösi
Background

Intracoronary (IC) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) results in a prompt decrease of absolute myocardial blood flow (AMF) with late and incomplete recovery of myocardial tissue perfusion. Here, we investigated the effect of decreased AMF on oxidative stress marker matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its influence on the fate and homing and paracrine character of MSCs after IC or intramyocardial cell delivery in a closed-chest reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) model in pigs.

Methods

Porcine MSCs were transiently transfected with Ad-Luc and Ad-green fluorescent protein (GFP). One week after MI, the GFP-Luc-MSCs were injected either IC (group IC, 11.00 ± 1.07 × 106) or intramyocardially (group IM, 9.88 ± 1.44 × 106). AMF was measured before, immediately after, and 24 h post GFP-Luc-MSC delivery. In vitro bioluminescence signal was used to identify tissue samples containing GFP-Luc-MSCs. Myocardial tissue MMP-2 and CXCR4 receptor expression (index of homing signal) were measured in bioluminescence positive and negative infarcted and border, and non-ischemic myocardial areas 1-day post cell transfer. At 7-day follow-up, myocardial homing (cadherin, CXCR4, and stromal derived factor-1alpha) and angiogenic [fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and VEGF] were quantified by ELISA of homogenized myocardial tissues from the bioluminescence positive and negative infarcted and border, and non-ischemic myocardium. Biodistribution of the implanted cells was quantified by using Luciferase assay and confirmed by fluorescence immunochemistry. Global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured at baseline and 1-month post cell therapy using magnet resonance image.

Results

AMF decreased immediately after IC cell delivery, while no change in tissue perfusion was found in the IM group (42.6 ± 11.7 vs. 56.9 ± 16.7 ml/min, p = 0.018). IC delivery led to a significant increase in myocardial MMP-2 64 kD expression (448 ± 88 vs. 315 ± 54 intensity × mm2, p = 0.021), and decreased expression of CXCR4 (592 ± 50 vs. 714 ± 54 pg/tissue/ml, p = 0.006), with significant exponential decay between MMP-2 and CXCR4 (r = 0.679, p < 0.001). FGF2 and VEGF of the bioluminescence infarcted and border zone of homogenized tissues were significantly elevated in the IM goups as compared to IC group. LVEF increase was significantly higher in IM group (0.8 ± 8.4 vs 5.3 ± 5.2%, p = 0.046) at the 1-month follow up.

Conclusion

Intracoronary stem cell delivery decreased AMF, with consequent increase in myocardial expression of MMP-2 and reduced CXCR4 expression with lower level of myocardial homing and angiogenic factor release as compared to IM cell delivery.

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