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posted on 07.05.2018, 13:42 authored by Chloé Michaudel, Isabelle Maillet, Louis Fauconnier, Valérie Quesniaux, Kian Fan Chung, Coen Wiegman, Daniel Peter, Bernhard Ryffel

Air pollution associated with ozone exposure represents a major inducer of respiratory disease in man. In mice, a single ozone exposure causes lung injury with disruption of the respiratory barrier and inflammation. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-associated cytokines upon a single ozone exposure (1 ppm for 1 h) using IL-1α-, IL-1β-, and IL-18-deficient mice or an anti-IL-1α neutralizing antibody underlying the rapid epithelial cell death. Here, we demonstrate the release of the alarmin IL-1α after ozone exposure and that the acute respiratory barrier injury and inflammation and airway hyperreactivity are IL-1α-dependent. IL-1α signaling via IL-1R1 depends on the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88). Importantly, epithelial cell signaling is critical, since deletion of MyD88 in lung type I alveolar epithelial cells reduced ozone-induced inflammation. In addition, intratracheal injection of recombinant rmIL-1α in MyD88acid mice led to reduction of inflammation in comparison with wild type mice treated with rmIL-1α. Therefore, a major part of inflammation is mediated by IL-1α signaling in epithelial cells. In conclusion, the alarmin IL-1α released upon ozone-induced tissue damage and inflammation is mediated by MyD88 signaling in epithelial cells. Therefore, IL-1α may represent a therapeutic target to attenuate ozone-induced lung inflammation and hyperreactivity.

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