Frontiers
Browse
Image_7_The effect of breakfast on childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.JPEG (75.34 kB)

Image_7_The effect of breakfast on childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.JPEG

Download (75.34 kB)
figure
posted on 2023-09-06, 04:06 authored by Kun Wang, Yifan Niu, Zhenzhen Lu, Boyang Duo, Clement Yaw Effah, Lina Guan
Objective

Previous cohort trials have shown that skipping breakfast increases the risk of obesity or overweight in children. However, this finding remains controversial. Through a meta-analysis, this study systematically evaluated the effect of skipping breakfast on the prevalence of obesity or overweight in children.

Methods

We performed a literature search for studies published until March 19, 2023. using the Cochrane, PubMed, and Embase databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, observational studies on the relationship between skipping breakfast and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents were analyzed. Three investigators independently screened the relevant literature, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A random-effects model was used. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate the effect size.

Results

A total of 40 retrospective studies with 323,244 children ranging in age from 2 to 20 years were included in this study. The results of this meta-analysis showed that children and adolescents who skipped breakfast had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity or overweight than those who ate breakfast (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90; P < 0.001). Skipping breakfast was positively associated with overweight in children and adolescents (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.23–1.54; P < 0.001). Similarly, skipping breakfast was positively associated with obesity in children and adolescents (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30–1.76; P < 0.001). The effect was also different by sex, with girls being the most affected (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23–1.76; P < 0.001). There was also a correlation between skipping breakfast and abdominal obesity in children (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55–0.77; P < 0.001).

Conclusion

This meta-analysis suggested that skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The findings provide support for a possible protective role of breakfast against excessive weight gain in children and adolescents. However, more rigorous study designs with validated and standardized measures of relevant variables are needed.

History