Image_6_Urinary Metabolomic Study in a Healthy Children Population and Metabolic Biomarker Discovery of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).TIF
Knowledge of the urinary metabolomic profiles of healthy children and adolescents plays a promising role in the field of pediatrics. Metabolomics has also been used to diagnose disease, discover novel biomarkers, and elucidate pathophysiological pathways. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. However, large-sample urinary metabolomic studies in children with ADHD are relatively rare. In this study, we aimed to identify specific biomarkers for ADHD diagnosis in children and adolescents by urinary metabolomic profiling.Methods
We explored the urine metabolome in 363 healthy children aged 1–18 years and 76 patients with ADHD using high-resolution mass spectrometry.Results
Metabolic pathways, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and catecholamine biosynthesis, were found to be related to sex and age in healthy children. The urinary metabolites displaying the largest differences between patients with ADHD and healthy controls belonged to the tyrosine, leucine, and fatty acid metabolic pathways. A metabolite panel consisting of FAPy-adenine, 3-methylazelaic acid, and phenylacetylglutamine was discovered to have good predictive ability for ADHD, with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC–AUC) of 0.918. A panel of FAPy-adenine, N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid, dopamine 4-sulfate, aminocaproic acid, and asparaginyl-leucine was used to establish a robust model for ADHD comorbid tic disorders and controls with an AUC of 0.918.