Image_6_The Interaction Mechanism Between Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein D and Host Antiviral Protein Viperin.jpg

Viperin is an interferon-inducible protein that responsible for a variety of antiviral responses to different viruses. Our previous study has shown that the ribonuclease UL41 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can degrade the mRNA of viperin to promote HSV-1 replication. However, it is not clear whether other HSV-1 encoded proteins can regulate the function of viperin. Here, one novel viperin associated protein, glycoprotein D (gD), was identified. To verify the interaction between gD and viperin, gD and viperin expression plasmids were firstly co-transfected into COS-7 cells, and fluorescence microscope showed they co-localized at the perinuclear region, then this potential interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Moreover, confocal microscopy demonstrated that gD and viperin co-localized at the Golgi body and lipid droplets. Furthermore, dual-luciferase reporter and Co-IP assays showed gD and viperin interaction leaded to the increase of IRF7-mediated IFN-β expression through promoting viperin and IRAK1 interaction and facilitating K63-linked IRAK1 polyubiquitination. Nevertheless, gD inhibited TRAF6-induced NF-κB activity by decreasing the interaction of viperin and TRAF6. In addition, gD restrained viperin-mediated interaction between IRAK1 and TRAF6. Eventually, gD and viperin interaction was corroborated to significantly inhibit the proliferation of HSV-1. Taken together, this study would open up new avenues toward delineating the function and physiological significance of gD and viperin during HSV-1 replication cycle.