Image_4_Two Similar Signatures for Predicting the Prognosis and Immunotherapy Efficacy of Stomach Adenocarcinoma Patients.TIF
Globally, stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD)’s high morbidity and mortality should arouse our urgent attention. How long can STAD patients survive after surgery and whether novel immunotherapy is effective are questions that our clinicians cannot escape.Methods
Various R packages, GSEA software, Metascape, STRING, Cytoscape, Venn diagram, TIMER2.0 website, TCGA, and GEO databases were used in our study.Results
In the TCGA and GEO, macrophage abundance of STAD tissues was significantly higher than that of adjacent tissues and was an independent prognostic factor, significantly related to the overall survival (OS) of STAD patients. Between the high- and low- macrophage abundance, we conducted differential expression, univariate and multivariate Cox analysis, and obtained 12 candidate genes, and finally constructed a 3-gene signature. Both low macrophage abundance group and group D had higher TMB and PD-L1 expression. Furthermore, top 5 common gene-mutated STAD tissues had lower macrophage abundance. Macrophage abundance and 3 key genes expression were also lower in the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and HM-indel STAD subtypes and significantly correlated with the tumor microenvironment score. The functional enrichment and ssGSEA revealed 2 signatures were similar and closely related to BOQUEST_STEM_CELL_UP, including genes up-regulated in proliferative stromal stem cells. Hsa-miR-335-5p simultaneously regulated 3 key genes and significantly related to the expression of PD-L1, CD8A and PDCD1.Conclusion
macrophage abundance and 3-gene signature could simultaneously predict the OS and immunotherapy efficacy, and both 2 signatures had remarkable similarities. Hsa-miR-335-5p and BOQUEST_STEM_CELL_UP might be novel immunotherapy targets.