Image_4_Progression Patterns, Treatment, and Prognosis Beyond Resistance of Responders to Immunotherapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.tif
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have changed the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance is inevitable. The disease progression patterns, sequential treatment, and prognosis beyond ICI resistance are not completely understood.Methods
We retrospectively analyzed stage IV NSCLC patients who underwent ICI treatment at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between January 2016 and January 2020 and who suffered disease progression after at least stable disease on immunotherapy for more than 3 months (at least two cycles). Oligoprogression and systematic progression were defined as previous reports. The main outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS), second PFS (PFS2), and overall survival (OS). Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis.Results
Totally 1,014 NSCLC patients were administered immunotherapy. Of them, 208 NSCLC patients were included in this retrospective study. The estimated PFS, PFS2 and OS were 6.3 months (95% CI 5.6–7.0 months), 10.7 months (95% CI 10.1–12.7 months), and 21.4 months (95% CI 20.6–26.4 months), respectively. After resistance, 55.3% (N = 115) patients developed oligoprogression, and 44.7% (N = 93) systemic progression. For patients with systemic progression, chemotherapy (N = 35, 37.6%), best supportive care (N = 30, 32.3%), and antiangiogenic therapy alone (N = 11, 11.8%) were the major strategies. A combination of local radiotherapy (N = 38, 33.0%) with continued ICIs was the most common treatment used in oligoprogression group, followed by continued immunotherapy with antiangiogenic therapy (N = 19, 16.5%) and local radiotherapy only (N = 17, 14.9%). For patients with oligoprogression, continued immunotherapy plus local radiotherapy can lead to a significantly longer PFS2 (12.9 vs. 10.0 months; p = 0.006) and OS (26.3 vs. 18.5 months, p = 0.001). The PFS2 and OS of patients with oligoprogression were superior to those of patients with systemic progression (PFS2: 13.1 vs. 10.0 months, p = 0.001; OS: 25.8 vs. 19.1 months, p = 0.003).Conclusions
The major progression pattern after acquired resistance from immunotherapy is oligoprogression. Local radiotherapy with continued immunotherapy beyond oligoprogression in responders was feasible and led to prolonged PFS2 and OS in advanced NSCLC patients.