Image_4_Interplay Between Mitophagy and Apoptosis Defines a Cell Fate Upon Co-treatment of Breast Cancer Cells With a Recombinant Fragment of Human κ-.tiff (132.94 kB)
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Image_4_Interplay Between Mitophagy and Apoptosis Defines a Cell Fate Upon Co-treatment of Breast Cancer Cells With a Recombinant Fragment of Human κ-Casein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand.tiff

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posted on 18.01.2021, 15:48 by Fabian Wohlfromm, Max Richter, Lado Otrin, Kamil Seyrek, Tanja Vidaković-Koch, Elena Kuligina, Vladimir Richter, Olga Koval, Inna N. Lavrik

A recombinant fragment of human κ-Casein, termed RL2, induces cell death of breast cancer cells; however, molecular mechanisms of RL2-mediated cell death have remained largely unknown. In the current study, we have decoded the molecular mechanism of the RL2-mediated cell death and found that RL2 acts via the induction of mitophagy. This was monitored by the loss of adenosine triphosphate production, LC3B-II generation, and upregulation of BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX, as well as phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced kinase 1. Moreover, we have analyzed the cross talk of this pathway with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis upon combinatorial treatment with RL2 and TRAIL. Strikingly, we found two opposite effects of this co-treatment. RL2 had inhibitory effects on TRAIL-induced cell death upon short-term co-stimulation. In particular, RL2 treatment blocked TRAIL-mediated caspase activation, cell viability loss, and apoptosis, which was mediated via the downregulation of the core proapoptotic regulators. Contrary to short-term co-treatment, upon long-term co-stimulation, RL2 sensitized the cells toward TRAIL-induced cell death; the latter observation provides the basis for the development of therapeutic approaches in breast cancer cells. Collectively, our findings have important implications for cancer therapy and reveal the molecular switches of the cross talk between RL2-induced mitophagy and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

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