Image_4_Integrated Transcriptomics and Widely Targeted Metabolomics Analyses Provide Insights Into Flavonoid Biosynthesis in the Rhizomes of Golden Buckwheat (Fagopyrum cymosum).TIF
Golden buckwheat (Fagopyrum cymosum) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It has received attention because of the high value of its various medicinal and nutritional metabolites, especially flavonoids (catechin and epicatechin). However, the metabolites and their encoding genes in golden buckwheat have not yet been identified in the global landscape. This study performed transcriptomics and widely targeted metabolomics analyses for the first time on rhizomes of golden buckwheat. As a result, 10,191 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 297 differentially regulated metabolites (DRMs) were identified, among which the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was enriched in both transcriptome and metabolome. The integration analyses of the transcriptome and the metabolome revealed a network related to catechin, in which four metabolites and 14 genes interacted with each other. Subsequently, an SG5 R2R3-MYB transcription factor, named FcMYB1, was identified as a transcriptional activator in catechin biosynthesis, as it was positively correlated to eight flavonoid biosynthesis genes in their expression patterns and was directly bound to the promoters of FcLAR2 and FcF3'H1 by yeast one hybrid analysis. Finally, a flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was proposed in the rhizomes of golden buckwheat, including 13 metabolites, 11 genes encoding 9 enzymes, and 1 MYB transcription factor. The expression of 12 DEGs were validated by qRT-PCR, resulting in a good agreement with the Pearson R ranging from 0.83 to 1. The study provided a comprehensive flavonoid biosynthesis and regulatory network of golden buckwheat.