Image_4_Dysbiosis and Ecotypes of the Salivary Microbiome Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and the Assistance in Diagnosis of Diseases Using Oral Bacterial Profiles.TIF (169.93 kB)

Image_4_Dysbiosis and Ecotypes of the Salivary Microbiome Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and the Assistance in Diagnosis of Diseases Using Oral Bacterial Profiles.TIF

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posted on 30.05.2018, 04:21 by Zhe Xun, Qian Zhang, Tao Xu, Ning Chen, Feng Chen

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, relapsing disorders of unclear etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. Aberrant interactions between the human microbiota and immune system in genetically susceptible populations underlie IBD pathogenesis. Despite extensive studies examining the involvement of the gut microbiota in IBD using culture-independent techniques, information is lacking regarding other human microbiome components relevant to IBD. Since accumulated knowledge has underscored the role of the oral microbiota in various systemic diseases, we hypothesized that dissonant oral microbial structure, composition, and function, and different community ecotypes are associated with IBD; and we explored potentially available oral indicators for predicting diseases. We examined the 16S rRNA V3–V4 region of salivary bacterial DNA from 54 ulcerative colitis (UC), 13 Crohn’s disease (CD), and 25 healthy individuals using Illumina sequencing. Distinctive sample clusters were driven by disease or health based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of both the Operational Taxonomic Unit profile and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Comparisons of taxa abundances revealed enrichment of Streptococcaceae (Streptococcus) and Enterobacteriaceae in UC and Veillonellaceae (Veillonella) in CD, accompanied by depletion of Lachnospiraceae and [Prevotella] in UC and Neisseriaceae (Neisseria) and Haemophilus in CD, most of which have been demonstrated to exhibit the same variation tendencies in the gut of IBD patients. IBD-related oral microorganisms were associated with white blood cells, reduced basic metabolic processes, and increased biosynthesis and transport of substances facilitating oxidative stress and virulence. Furthermore, UC and CD communities showed robust sub-ecotypes that were not demographic or severity-specific, suggesting their value for future applications in precision medicine. Additionally, indicator species analysis revealed several genera indicative of UC and CD, which were confirmed in a longitudinal cohort. Collectively, this study demonstrates evident salivary dysbiosis and different ecotypes in IBD communities and provides an option for identifying at-risk populations, not only enhancing our understanding of the IBD microbiome apart from the gut but also offering a clinically useful strategy to track IBD as saliva can be sampled conveniently and non-invasively.

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