Image_4_Differentiation and Variability in the Rhizosphere and Endosphere Microbiomes of Healthy and Diseased Cotton (Gossypium sp.).tif
The plant microbiome is a key determinant of health and productivity. However, it is still difficult to understand the structural composition of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes of diseased and healthy plants, especially the spatial dynamics and phylogenies of endophytic and rhizosphere microbial communities. We studied the differentiation and variability in the rhizosphere and endosphere microbiomes of healthy and diseased cotton from north and south of the Tianshan Mountains using the methods of PCR-based high-throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. The endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial abundances in the diseased plants were greater than those of healthy plants. The numbers of endophytic and rhizosphere fungi associated with diseased plants were greater than those associated healthy plants (p < 0.05). Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria did not share common OTUs. The dominant rhizosphere bacteria were Proteobacteria (29.70%), Acidobacteria (23.14%), Gemmatimonadetes (15.17%), Actinobacteria (8.31%), Chloroflexi (7.99%), and Bacteroidetes (5.15%). The dominant rhizosphere fungi were Ascomycota (83.52%), Mortierellomycota (7.67%), Basidiomycota (2.13%), Chytridiomycota (0.39%), and Olpidiomycota (0.08%). The distribution of dominant bacteria in different cotton rhizosphere soils and roots differed, with the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas (15.54%) and Pantoea (9.19%), and the dominant fungi Alternaria (16.15%) and Cephalotrichum (9.10%) being present in the greatest numbers. At sampling points in different ecological regions, the total numbers of cotton endophytic and rhizosphere microbiome OTUs from southern to northern Xinjiang showed an increasing trend. There were significant differences in the composition and diversity of rhizosphere microbes and endophytes during the entire cotton growth period and in representative ecological regions (p < 0.01), whereas rhizosphere microbes and endophytes showed no significant differences among the four growth periods and in representative ecological regions. RB41, H16, Nitrospira, and Sphingomonas play important roles in the microbial ecology of cotton rhizosphere soil. Pseudomonas accounted for a large proportion of the microbes in the cotton rhizosphere soil. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the complex microbial composition and diversity associated with cotton north and south of the Tianshan Mountains.