Image_4_Development of a Non-invasive Deep Brain Stimulator With Precise Positioning and Real-Time Monitoring of Bioimpedance.tif
Methods by which to achieve non-invasive deep brain stimulation via temporally interfering with electric fields have been proposed, but the precision of the positioning of the stimulation and the reliability and stability of the outputs require improvement. In this study, a temporally interfering electrical stimulator was developed based on a neuromodulation technique using the interference modulation waveform produced by several high-frequency electrical stimuli to treat neurodegenerative diseases. The device and auxiliary software constitute a non-invasive neuromodulation system. The technical problems related to the multichannel high-precision output of the device were solved by an analog phase accumulator and a special driving circuit to reduce crosstalk. The function of measuring bioimpedance in real time was integrated into the stimulator to improve effectiveness. Finite element simulation and phantom measurements were performed to find the functional relations among the target coordinates, current ratio, and electrode position in the simplified model. Then, an appropriate approach was proposed to find electrode configurations for desired target locations in a detailed and realistic mouse model. A mouse validation experiment was carried out under the guidance of a simulation, and the reliability and positioning accuracy of temporally interfering electric stimulators were verified. Stimulator improvement and precision positioning solutions promise opportunities for further studies of temporally interfering electrical stimulation.