Image_4_Construction of a SNP-Based High-Density Genetic Map Using Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) and QTL Analysis of Nut Traits in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).JPEG

Chinese chestnut is a wildly distributed nut species with importantly economic value. The nut size and ripening period are mainly desired breeding objectives in Chinese chestnut. However, high-density linkage maps and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses related to nut traits are less than satisfactory, which hinders progress in the breeding of Chinese chestnut. Here, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based high-density linkage map was constructed through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of an F1 cross between the two widely grown Chinese chestnut cultivars ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Guanting No. 10’. The genetic linkage map consists of 2,620 SNP markers with a total length of 1078.06 cM in 12 linkage groups (LGs) and an average marker distance of 0.41 cM. 17 QTLs were identified for five nut traits, specifically single-nut weight (SNW), nut width (NW), nut thickness (NT), nut height (NH), and ripening period (RP), based on phenotypic data from two successive years. Of the 17 QTLs, two major QTLs, i.e., qNT-I-1 and qRP-B-1 related to the NT and RP traits, respectively, were exploited. Moreover, the data revealed one pleiotropic QTL at 23.97 cM on LG I, which might simultaneously control SNW, NT, and NW. This study provides useful benchmark information concerning high-density genetic mapping and QTLs identification related to nut size and ripening period, and will accelerate genetic improvements for nuts in the marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding of Chinese chestnut.