Image_3_Marigold Supercritical Extract as Potential Co-adjuvant in Pancreatic Cancer: The Energetic Catastrophe Induced via BMP8B Ends Up With Autopha.TIF (1.96 MB)
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Image_3_Marigold Supercritical Extract as Potential Co-adjuvant in Pancreatic Cancer: The Energetic Catastrophe Induced via BMP8B Ends Up With Autophagy-Induced Cell Death.TIF

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posted on 24.01.2020, 04:06 by Marta Gómez de Cedrón, Lamia Mouhid, Elena García-Carrascosa, Tiziana Fornari, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina

The recent development of powerful “omics” technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics) has opened new avenues in nutritional sciences toward precision nutrition, which is a genotype-directed nutrition that takes into account the differential responses to nutritional interventions based on gene variation (nutrigenetics) and the effect of nutrients on gene expression (nutrigenomics). Current evidence demonstrates that up to one third of the deaths caused by cancer could be prevented by acting on key risk factors, with diet being one of the most important risk factors due to its association with obesity. Additional factors such as composition of gut microbiome, the immune system, and the nutritional status will have an impact on the final outcome. Nutrient components and bioactive compounds from natural sources can have an impact on cancer progression or even the risk of cancer development by regulating gene expression and/or associated risk factors such as obesity and chronic inflammation. Nowadays, among the different methods to produce natural extracts, the green technology of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is quite popular, with a special interest on the use of supercritical CO2 for the extraction of compounds with low polarity. The success of nutritional interventions based on the use of nutraceuticals requires several steps: (i) in vitro and preclinical demonstration of their antitumoral effects; (ii) knowledge of their mechanism of action and molecular targets, which will allow for identification of the specific subgroups of patients who will benefit from them; (iii) the study of genetic variants associated with the differential responses; and (iv) innovative approaches of formulations to improve the in vivo bioavailability of the bioactive ingredients. Herein, we investigate the antitumoral properties and mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract from Calendula officinalis, commonly known as marigold (marigold SFE) in the context of pancreatic cancer. Mechanistically, marigold SFE induces the expression of BMP8B, which leads to an energetic catastrophe ending up with autophagy-induced cell death (AICD). As metabolic reprogramming is a well-recognized hallmark of cancer, the direct impact of marigold SFE on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism encourages further research of its potential as a coadjuvant in pancreatic cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss innovative formulation approaches to augment the clinical therapeutic potential of marigold SFE in nutritional interventions.