Image_3_Malignant Tumor Purity Reveals the Driven and Prognostic Role of CD3E in Low-Grade Glioma Microenvironment.tif
The tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes to the initiation and progression of many neoplasms. However, the impact of low-grade glioma (LGG) purity on carcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. We selected 509 LGG patients with available genomic and clinical information from the TCGA database. The percentage of tumor infiltrating immune cells and the tumor purity of LGG were evaluated using the ESTIMATE and CIBERSORT algorithms. Stromal-related genes were screened through Cox regression, and protein-protein interaction analyses and survival-related genes were selected in 487 LGG patients from GEO database. Hub genes involved in LGG purity were then identified and functionally annotated using bioinformatics analyses. Prognostic implications were validated in 100 patients from an Asian real-world cohort. Elevated tumor purity burden, immune scores, and stromal scores were significantly associated with poor outcomes and increased grade in LGG patients from the TCGA cohort. In addition, CD3E was selected with the most significant prognostic value (Hazard Ratio=1.552, P<0.001). Differentially expressed genes screened according to CD3E expression were mainly involved in stromal related activities. Additionally, significantly increased CD3E expression was found in 100 LGG samples from the validation cohort compared with adjacent normal brain tissues. High CD3E expression could serve as an independent prognostic indicator for survival of LGG patients and promotes malignant cellular biological behaviors of LGG. In conclusion, tumor purity has a considerable impact on the clinical, genomic, and biological status of LGG. CD3E, the gene for novel membrane immune biomarker deeply affecting tumor purity, may help to evaluate the prognosis and develop individual immunotherapy strategies for LGG patients. Evaluating the ratio of differential tumor purity and CD3E expression levels may provide novel insights into the complex structure of the LGG microenvironment and targeted drug development.