Image_3_Longitudinal and Comparative Analysis of Gut Microbiota of Tunisian Newborns According to Delivery Mode.jpeg
Microbiota colonization is a dynamic process that impacts the health status during an individual's lifetime. The composition of the gut microbiota of newborns is conditioned by multiple factors, including the delivery mode (DM). Nonetheless, the DM's influence remains uncertain and is still the subject of debate. In this context, the medical indication and the emergency of a cesarean delivery might have led to confounding conclusions regarding the composition and diversity of the neonatal microbiome. Herein, we used high-resolution shotgun sequencing to decipher the composition and dynamics of the gut microbiota composition of Tunisian newborns. Stool samples were collected from 5 elective cesarean section (ECS) and 5 vaginally delivered (VD) newborns at the following time points: Day 0, Day 15, and Day 30. The ECS and VD newborns showed the same level of bacterial richness and diversity. In addition, our data pointed to a shift in microbiota community composition during the first 2 weeks, regardless of the DM. Both ECS and VD showed a profile dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. However, ECS showed an underrepresentation of Bacteroides and an enrichment of opportunistic pathogenic species of the ESKAPE group, starting from the second week. Besides revealing the intestinal microbiota of Tunisian newborns, this study provides novel insights into the microbiota perturbations caused by ECS.