Image_3_High-Fat Diet Induced Alteration of Mice Microbiota and the Functional Ability to Utilize Fructooligosaccharide for Ethanol Production.JPEG
High-fat diet (HFD) leads to enhancement in various parameters of mice like weight, fasting glucose levels, adipose tissue, and also the liver weight in male C57 BL/6 J mice. Additionally, high-fat diet causes severe liver damage with significant increase in the level of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The variations in microbiota induced by different diet were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq platform with sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and QIIME pipeline was used. The population of Proteobacteria was found to be higher in HFD cecum sample as compared to other treatments. Microbiota analysis suggests that phylum Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were found to be higher in high-fat diet groups as compared to mice fed with normal diet (ND). At the genus level, Bacteroides showed higher population in HFD diet. Bacterial strains belonging to Enterobacteriaceae like Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Shigella were also dominant in HFD treatments. Furthermore, we explored the effects of ethanol production in vitro with supplementation of dietary fibers following inoculation of ND and HFD microbiotas. HFD microbiota of cecum and feces showed high level (P < 0.05) of ethanol production with 2% fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as compared to 2% galactomannan. Microbial fermentation also generated short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. High levels (P < 0.05) of propionate were found after fermentation of FOS with HFD cecum and feces microbiota. The present study highlights the HFD-induced population of phylum Proteobacteria and genus Bacteroides for ethanol production using FOS as a dietary supplement, and these findings may imply on the harmful effect of HFD even at the microbiota level.