Image_3_Genome-Wide Analysis and Expression Profiles of Ethylene Signal Genes and Apetala2/Ethylene-Responsive Factors in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).JPEG
Peanut is an important oil and economic crop widely cultivated in the world. It has special characteristics such as blooming on the ground but bearing fruits underground. During the peg penetrating into the ground, it is subjected to mechanical stress from the soil at the same time. It has been proved that mechanical stress affects plant growth and development by regulating the ethylene signaling-related genes. In this study, we identified some genes related to ethylene signal of peanut, including 10 ethylene sensors, two constitutive triple responses (CTRs), four ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2s), four ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3s), six EIN3-binding F-box proteins (EBFs), and 188 Apetala2/ethylene-responsive factors (AP2/ERFs). One hundred and eighty-eight AP2/ERFs were further divided into four subfamilies, 123 ERFs, 56 AP2s, 6 Related to ABI3/VP1 (RAVs), and three Soloists, of them one hundred and seventy AP2/ERF gene pairs were clustered into segmental duplication events in genome of Arachis hypogaea. A total of 134, 138, 97, and 150 AhAP2/ERF genes formed 210, 195, 166, and 525 orthologous gene pairs with Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Glycine max, respectively. Our transcriptome results showed that two EIN3s (Arahy.J729H0 and Arahy.S7XF8N) and one EBFs (Arahy.G4JMEM) were highly expressed when mechanical stress increased. Among the 188 AhAP2/ERF genes, there were 31 genes with the fragments per kilobase of exon model per million mapped fragments (FPKM) ≥ 100 at least one of the 15 samples of Tifrunner. Among them, three AhAP2/ERFs (Arahy.15RATX, Arahy.FAI7YU, and Arahy.452FBF) were specifically expressed in seeds and five AhAP2/ERFs (Arahy.HGAZ7D, Arahy.ZW7540, Arahy.4XS3FZ, Arahy.QGFJ76, and Arahy.AS0C7C) were highly expressed in the tissues, which responded mechanical stress, suggesting that they might sense mechanical stress. Mechanical stress simulation experiment showed that three AhAP2/ERFs (Arahy.QGFJ76, Arahy.AS0C7C, and Arahy.HGAZ7D) were sensitive to mechanical stress changes and they all had the conservative repressor motif (DLNXXP) in the C-terminus, indicated that they might transmit mechanical stress signals through transcriptional inhibition. This study reveals the regulatory landscape of ethylene signal-related genes in peanut, providing valuable information for the mining of target genes for further study.