Image_3_Genetic Diversity, Pedigree Relationships, and A Haplotype-Based DNA Fingerprinting System of Red Bayberry Cultivars.jpg
High throughput sequencing was used to reveal the distribution of whole-genome variations in cultivated Morella rubra (Sieb. et Zucc.). A total of 3,151,123 SNPs, 371,757 small indels, and 15,904 SVs were detected in 52 accessions. Verification by Sanger sequencing demonstrated that the positive rate of the SNPs was approximately 97.3%. Search for more genetic variations was expanded to 141 red bayberry accessions, most of which were cultivars, by sequencing 19 selected genomic segments (SEG1-19). The results showed that each segment harbored, on average, 7.8 alleles (haplotypes), a haplotype diversity of 0.42, and a polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.40. Seventy-two different genotypes were identified from the 141 accessions, and statistical analysis showed that the accessions with duplicated genotypes were either somatic mutants or simply synonyms. Core set selection results showed that a minimum of 34 genotypes could already have covered all the alleles on the segments. A DNA fingerprinting system was developed for red bayberry, which used the diversity information of only 8 DNA segments yet still achieved a very high efficiency without losing robustness. No large clade was robustly supported by hierarchical clustering, and well-supported small clusters mainly included close relatives. These results should lead to an improved understanding of the genetic diversity of red bayberry and be valuable for future molecular breeding and variety protection.
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