Image_3_Dysregulation of IL-17/IL-22 Effector Functions in Blood and Gut Mucosal Gamma Delta T Cells Correlates With Increase in Circulating Leaky Gut.tif (1.76 MB)

Image_3_Dysregulation of IL-17/IL-22 Effector Functions in Blood and Gut Mucosal Gamma Delta T Cells Correlates With Increase in Circulating Leaky Gut and Inflammatory Markers During cART-Treated Chronic SIV Infection in Macaques.tif

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posted on 2021-02-25, 04:06 authored by Edith M. Walker, Nadia Slisarenko, Giovanni L. Gerrets, Brooke F. Grasperge, Julie A. Mattison, Patricia J. Kissinger, David A. Welsh, Ronald S. Veazey, S. Michal Jazwinski, Namita Rout

HIV-associated inflammation has been implicated in the premature aging and increased risk of age-associated comorbidities in cART-treated individuals. However, the immune mechanisms underlying the chronic inflammatory state of cART-suppressed HIV infection remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of γδT cells, a group of innate IL-17 producing T lymphocytes, in the development of systemic inflammation and leaky gut phenotype during cART-suppressed SIV infection of macaques. Plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, intestinal epithelial barrier disruption (IEBD) and microbial translocation (MT) biomarkers, and Th1/Th17-type cytokine functions were longitudinally assessed in blood and gut mucosa of SIV-infected, cART-suppressed macaques. Among the various gut mucosal IL-17/IL-22-producing T lymphocyte subsets including Th17, γδT, CD161+ CD8+ T, and MAIT cells, a specific decline in the Vδ2 subset of γδT cells and impaired IL-17/IL-22 production in γδT cells significantly correlated with the subsequent increase in plasma IEBD/MT markers (IFABP, LPS-binding protein, and sCD14) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, IP10, etc.) despite continued viral suppression during long-term cART. Further, the plasma inflammatory cytokine signature during long-term cART was distinct from acute SIV infection and resembled the inflammatory cytokine profile of uninfected aging (inflammaging) macaques. Overall, our data suggest that during cART-suppressed chronic SIV infection, dysregulation of IL-17/IL-22 cytokine effector functions and decline of Vδ2 γδT cell subsets may contribute to gut epithelial barrier disruption and development of a distinct plasma inflammatory signature characteristic of inflammaging. Our results advance the current understanding of the impact of chronic HIV/SIV infection on γδT cell functions and demonstrate that in the setting of long-term cART, the loss of epithelial barrier-protective functions of Vδ2 T cells and ensuing IEBD/MT occurs before the hallmark expansion of Vδ1 subsets and skewed Vδ2/Vδ1 ratio. Thus, our work suggests that novel therapeutic approaches toward restoring IL-17/IL-22 cytokine functions of intestinal Vδ2 T cells may be beneficial in preserving gut epithelial barrier function and reducing chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals.