Image_3_Antagonism of Protease Activated Receptor-2 by GB88 Reduces Inflammation Triggered by Protease Allergen Tyr-p3.tif (204.65 kB)
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Image_3_Antagonism of Protease Activated Receptor-2 by GB88 Reduces Inflammation Triggered by Protease Allergen Tyr-p3.tif

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posted on 08.09.2021, 04:48 authored by Yun-Ju Wang, Sheng-Jie Yu, Jaw-Ji Tsai, Ching-Hsiang Yu, En-Chih Liao

The occurrence of allergic diseases induced by aeroallergens has increased in the past decades. Among inhalant allergens, mites remain the important causal agent of allergic diseases. Storage mites- Tyrophagus putrescentiae are found in stored products or domestic environments. Major allergen Tyr-p3 plays a significant role in triggering IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. However, its effects on pulmonary inflammation, internalization, and activation in human epithelium remain elusive. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are activated upon cleavage by proteases. A549 cells were used as an epithelial model to examine the PAR activation by Tyr-p3 and therapeutic potential of PAR-2 antagonist (GB88) in allergic responses. Enzymatic properties and allergen localization of Tyr-p3 were performed. The release of inflammatory mediators, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell junction disruptions were evaluated after Tyr-p3 challenge. Enzymatic properties determined by substrate digestion and protease inhibitors indicated that Tyr-p3 processes a trypsin-like serine protease activity. The PAR-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased by nTyr-p3 but inhibited by protease inhibitors or GB88. Protease allergen of nTyr-p3 significantly increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokine (IL-8), and IL-1β in epithelial cells. nTyr-p3 markedly increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and MAP kinase. When cells were pretreated with GB88 then added nTyr-p3, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 did not inhibit by GB88. GB88 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human epithelium cells. GB88 is able to block PAR-2-mediated calcium signaling which inhibits the nTyr-p3-induced Ca2+ release. Among the pharmacologic inhibitors, the most effective inhibitor of the nTyr-p3 in the induction of IL-8 or IL-1β levels was GB88 followed by SBTI, MAPK/ERK, ERK, and p38 inhibitors. Levels of inflammatory mediators, including GM-CSF, VEGF, COX-2, TSLP, and IL-33 were reduced by treatment of GB88 or SBTI. Further, GB88 treatment down-regulated the nTyr-p3-induced PAR-2 expression in allergic patients with asthma or rhinitis. Tight junction and adherens junction were disrupted in epithelial cells by nTyr-p3 exposure; however, this effect was avoided by GB88. Immunostaining with frozen sections of the mite body showed the presence of Tyr-p3 throughout the intestinal digestive system, especially in the hindgut around the excretion site. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tyr-p3 from domestic mites leads to disruption of the airway epithelial barrier after inhalation. Proteolytic activity of Tyr-p3 causes the PAR-2 mRNA expression, thus leading to the release of numerous inflammatory mediators. Antagonism of PAR2 activity suggests GB88 as the therapeutic potential for anti-inflammation medicine, especially in allergy development triggered by protease allergens.