Image_2_The Significance of Transarterial Chemo(Embolization) Combined With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Unresectab.tif (195.44 kB)
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Image_2_The Significance of Transarterial Chemo(Embolization) Combined With Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Era of Systemic Therapy: A Systematic Review.tif

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posted on 23.05.2022, 04:03 authored by Qiao Ke, Fuli Xin, Huipeng Fang, Yongyi Zeng, Lei Wang, Jingfeng Liu
Background and Aims

Regardless of great progress in early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), unresectable HCC (uHCC) still accounts for the majority of newly diagnosed HCC with poor prognosis. With the promising results of a double combination of transarterial chemo(embolization) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and TKIs and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), a more aggressive strategy, a triple combination of transarterial chemo(embolization), TKIs, and ICIs has been tried in the recent years. Hence, we aimed to conduct a systematic review to verify the safety and efficacy of the triple therapy for uHCC.

Methods

PubMed, MedLine, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Knowledge were used to screen the eligible studies evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of triple therapy for patients with uHCC up to April 25th 2022, as well as Chinese databases. The endpoints were the complete response (CR), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), conversion rate, progression-free survival (PFS) rate, overall survival (OS) rate, and the incidence of adverse events (AEs).

Results

A total of 15 studies were eligible with 741 patients receiving transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) combined with TKIs and ICIs. The pooled rate and 95% confidence interval (CI) for CR, ORR, and DCR were 0.124 (0.069–0.190), 0.606 (0.528–0.682), and 0.885 (0.835–0.927). The pooled rates for PFS at 0.5 years and 1 year were 0.781 (0.688–0.862) and 0.387 (0.293–0.486), respectively. The pooled rates for OS at 1, 2, and 3 years were 0.690 (0.585–0.786), 0.212 (0.117–0.324), and 0.056 (0.028–0.091), respectively. In addition, the pooled rate and 95%CI for the conversion surgery was 0.359 (0.153–0.595). The subgroup analysis of control studies showed that triple therapy was superior to TACE+TKIs, TKIs+ICIs, and TKIs in CR, ORR, and DCR, conversion rate; PFS; and OS. No fatal AEs were reported, and the top three most common AEs were elevated ALT, elevated AST, and hypertension, as well as severe AEs (grading ≥3).

Conclusion

With the current data, we concluded that the triple therapy of TACE/HAIC, TKIs, and ICIs would provide a clinical benefit for uHCC both in short- and long-term outcomes without increasing severe AEs, but the conclusion needs further validation.

Systematic Review Registration

http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, Review registry: CRD42022321970.

History

References