Image_2_The NF-κB Transcription Factor c-Rel Modulates Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Effector Functions and Drives Allergic Airway Inflammation.pdf (606.34 kB)
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Image_2_The NF-κB Transcription Factor c-Rel Modulates Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Effector Functions and Drives Allergic Airway Inflammation.pdf

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posted on 16.11.2021, 04:36 authored by Barbara C. Mindt, Sai Sakktee Krisna, Claudia U. Duerr, Mathieu Mancini, Lara Richer, Silvia M. Vidal, Steven Gerondakis, David Langlais, Jörg H. Fritz

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play a key role in the initiation and orchestration of early type 2 immune responses. Upon tissue damage, ILC2s are activated by alarmins such as IL-33 and rapidly secrete large amounts of type 2 signature cytokines. ILC2 activation is governed by a network of transcriptional regulators including nuclear factor (NF)-κB family transcription factors. While it is known that activating IL-33 receptor signaling results in downstream NF-κB activation, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we found that the NF-κB subunit c-Rel is required to mount effective innate pulmonary type 2 immune responses. IL-33-mediated activation of ILC2s in vitro as well as in vivo was found to induce c-Rel mRNA and protein expression. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-33-mediated activation of ILC2s leads to nuclear translocation of c-Rel in pulmonary ILC2s. Although c-Rel was found to be a critical mediator of innate pulmonary type 2 immune responses, ILC2-intrinsic deficiency of c-Rel did not have an impact on the developmental capacity of ILC2s nor affected homeostatic numbers of lung-resident ILC2s at steady state. Moreover, we demonstrate that ILC2-intrinsic deficiency of c-Rel alters the capacity of ILC2s to upregulate the expression of ICOSL and OX40L, key stimulatory receptors, and the expression of type 2 signature cytokines IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Collectively, our data using Rel−/− mice suggest that c-Rel promotes acute ILC2-driven allergic airway inflammation and suggest that c-Rel may contribute to the pathophysiology of ILC2-mediated allergic airway disease. It thereby represents a promising target for the treatment of allergic asthma, and evaluating the effect of established c-Rel inhibitors in this context would be of great clinical interest.

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