Image_2_Swine Influenza Virus Infection Decreases the Protective Immune Responses of Subunit Vaccine Against Porcine Circovirus Type 2.TIFF
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary pathogen of porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus associated diseases. Immunization with a vaccine is considered an effective measure to control these diseases. However, it is still unknown whether PCV2 vaccines have protective immune responses on the animals infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), a pandemic virus in swine herds. In this study, we first compared the effects of 2 different PCV2 vaccines on normal mice and SIV-infected mice, respectively. The results showed that these two vaccines had protective immune responses in normal mice, and the subunit vaccine (vaccine S) had better effects. However, the inactivated vaccine (vaccine I) instead of vaccine S exhibited more immune responses in the SIV-infected mice. SIV infection significantly decreased the immune responses of vaccine S in varying aspects including decreased PCV2 antibody levels and increased PCV2 replication. Mechanistically, further studies showed that SIV infection increased IL-10 expression and M2 macrophage percentage, but decreased TNF-α expression and M1 macrophage percentage in the mice immunized with vaccine S; on the contrary, macrophage depleting by using clodronate-containing liposomes significantly alleviated the SIV infection-induced decrease in the protective immune responses of vaccine S against PCV2. This study indicates that SIV infection decreases the protective immune responses of vaccine S against PCV2. The macrophage polarization induced by SIV infection might facilitate decreased immune responses to vaccine S, which provides new insight into vaccine evaluation and a reference for the analysis of immunization failure.