Image_2_Selective Binding of Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides to Factor H and Factor H-Related Proteins: Therapeutic Potential for C3 Glomerul.tiff (927.35 kB)
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Image_2_Selective Binding of Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides to Factor H and Factor H-Related Proteins: Therapeutic Potential for C3 Glomerulopathies.tiff

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posted on 18.08.2021, 05:24 by Markus A. Loeven, Marissa L. Maciej-Hulme, Cansu Yanginlar, Melanie C. Hubers, Edwin Kellenbach, Mark de Graaf, Toin H. van Kuppevelt, Jack Wetzels, Ton J. Rabelink, Richard J. H. Smith, Johan van der Vlag

Complement dysregulation is characteristic of the renal diseases atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and complement component 3 glomerulopathy (C3G). Complement regulatory protein Factor H (FH) inhibits complement activity, whereas FH-related proteins (FHRs) lack a complement regulatory domain. FH and FHRs compete for binding to host cell glycans, in particular heparan sulfates (HS). HS is a glycosaminoglycan with an immense structural variability, where distinct sulfation patterns mediate specific binding of proteins. Mutations in FH, FHRs, or an altered glomerular HS structure may disturb the FH : FHRs balance on glomerular endothelial cells, thereby leading to complement activation and the subsequent development of aHUS/C3G. In this study, we aimed to identify specific HS structures that could specifically compete off FHRs from HS glycocalyx (HSGlx), without interfering with FH binding. FH/FHR binding to human conditionally immortalized glomerular endothelial cells (ciGEnCs) and HSGlx purified from ciGEnC glycocalyx was assessed. HS modifications important for FH/FHR binding to HSGlx were analyzed using selectively desulfated heparins in competition with purified HSGlx. We further assessed effects of heparinoids on FHR1- and FHR5-mediated C3b deposition on ciGEnCs. In the presence of C3b, binding of FH, FHR1 and FHR5 to ciGEnCs was significantly increased, whereas binding of FHR2 was minimal. FHR1 and 5 competitively inhibited FH binding to HSGlx, leading to alternative pathway dysregulation. FHR1 and FHR5 binding was primarily mediated by N-sulfation while FH binding depended on N-, 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. Addition of 2-O-desulfated heparin significantly reduced FHR1- and FHR5-mediated C3b deposition on ciGEnCs. We identify 2-O-desulfated heparin derivatives as potential therapeutics for C3G and other diseases with dysregulated complement.

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