Image_2_Rebound After Fingolimod and a Single Daclizumab Injection in a Patient Retrospectively Diagnosed With NMO Spectrum Disorder—MRI Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Maps in Differential Diagnosis of Demyelinating CNS Disorders.JPEG
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Objective: Differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) or mimics can be challenging, especially in patients with atypical presentations and negative serostatus for aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). This brief research report describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings focusing on quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis as a potential tool to differentiate NMOSD from MS.
Methods: Longitudinal MRI data obtained during routine clinical examinations were retrospectively analyzed in a patient with histologically determined cerebral NMOSD, a patient with an acute tumefactive MS lesion, and a patient with ischemic stroke. Histogram analyses of ADC maps were evaluated.
Results: A patient diagnosed with MS experienced a severe rebound after fingolimod withdrawal and a single daclizumab injection. Cerebral NMOSD manifestation was confirmed by brain biopsy. However, the patient did not fulfill consensus criteria for NMOSD and was AQP4-Ab negative. Comparison of ADC histogram analyses of this patient with those from a patient with MS and one with ischemic stroke revealed differential ADC characteristics: namely a more pronounced and prolonged ADC leftward shift in inflammatory than in ischemic pathology, even more accentuated in NMOSD versus MS.
Conclusion: ADC map histograms and ADC threshold values for different conditions may be useful for differentiation of large inflammatory brain lesions and further studies are merited.
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