Image_2_Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice.tif
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Seed germination and early seedling growth are important agricultural traits for developing populations of both irrigated and directly seeded rice (DSR). To investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying seed germination and early seedling growth in rice, 275 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were genotyped in this study via the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to construct a high-density linkage bin map based on the parent-independent genotyping method. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 12 traits related to seed germination and early seedling growth were analyzed. Totally, 22 additive loci were detected, after analysis of the interaction between additive QTLs and environments, five stable additive loci were obtained. Among them, loci 4, 5, 12 and 14 exhibited clear pleiotropic effects that were associated with multiple traits. Analysis of the effects of the five additive stable loci showed that a single locus increased the corresponding phenotypic value. Ten of the 275 RILs pyramided the excellent alleles of the five stable genetic loci. Most phenotypic values of the ten RILs were greater than the average values. Four RILs (G260, G342, G371, and G401) with more excellent phenotypic values were subsequently selected; these RILs could serve as donor parents of favorable alleles in the breeding process. Due to the existence of pleiotropy, the use of these genetic loci for pyramid breeding can further increase the efficiency to reach breeding goals. In addition, these five stable loci have an average physical interval of only 170 kb, we also further identified five promising candidate genes by qRT-PCR, which provides us with a basis for future cloning of these genes. Overall, this work will help broaden our understanding of the genetic control of seed germination and early seedling growth, and this study provides both a good theoretical basis and a new genetic resource for the breeding of direct-seeded rice.
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