Image_2_Profiling Branchial Bacteria of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Following Exposure to Antimicrobial Agents.pdf
Microbial gill diseases caused by either opportunistic or specific pathogens are an emerging area of concern for aquaculture producers in part due to their sometimes complex and/or cryptic nature. Many antimicrobial treatments used in aquacultural settings are broad spectrum in nature. The effect of such therapeutics upon reduction and recolonization of commensal or pathogenic microbiota post-treatment has received little attention to date. Commensal bacteria are an integral component of the barrier function of mucosal surfaces in animals. This study evaluated the effect of several commercially relevant antimicrobial treatments upon the diversity and composition of branchial bacteria of Atlantic salmon. Here we exposed Atlantic salmon smolt to a number of commercially relevant antimicrobial treatments including chemotherapeutants (chloramine-t and hydrogen peroxide) and antibiotics (oxytetracycline and florfenicol) in vivo. Subsequently we examined the change in bacterial load, 16S rRNA gene expression, and taxonomic diversity post-treatment upon the gills. Results revealed a decrease in cultivable bacterial colonies after antimicrobial treatment, and a downstream decrease in bacterial richness and abundance post-treatment, with colonization of several prominent pathogenic taxa including Vibrio and Tenacibaculum. Temporal tracing over a 14-day period demonstrated that the bacteriome of gill mucus is sensitive to change, and altered by antimicrobial treatment and handling. This study identified candidate antimicrobial treatments which could be implemented in future studies to illustrate the effect of dysbiosis on microbial gill diseases.