Image_2_Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus Inhibits IFN-α, IFN-β, OAS, Mx1, and PKR mRNA Expression in Infected Peyer's Patches in vivo.tif (689.33 kB)

Image_2_Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus Inhibits IFN-α, IFN-β, OAS, Mx1, and PKR mRNA Expression in Infected Peyer's Patches in vivo.tif

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posted on 03.07.2020, 04:16 by Zhichao Xu, Lang Gong, Peng Peng, Yufang Liu, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao

Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV) is a newly identified swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea in neonatal piglets. The pathogenesis and host immune responses of PEAV infection are not fully characterized. The reason lies in the stomach environment, which would degrade cell-cultured live viruses via oral infection, making it difficult to establish an effective infection model to study the pathogenesis and host immune responses in pigs with a mature immune system. To solve this problem, in this study, coated PEAV-loaded microspheres were developed by centrifugal granulation-fluidized bed coating and demonstrated as an effective oral delivery system/animal infection model to protect PEAV virion against the complex gastrointestinal environment in vitro and to cause infection in weaned piglets in vivo. Weaned piglets orally inoculated with coated PEAV-loaded microspheres developed diarrhea and virus RNA was detected in rectal swabs from one to seven days post inoculation. In addition, microscopic lesions in the small intestine were observed, and viral antigens were also detected in the small intestines with PEAV immunohistochemical staining. Importantly, PEAV significantly inhibited mRNA expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, OAS, Mx1, and PKR, the genes involved in modulation of the host immune responses, in infected Peyer's patches, indicating that PEAV can overcome the antiviral response to cause damage when infection occurs. Collectively, our research successfully established a PEAV animal infection model in weaned piglets and suggested that the observed gene expression profile might help explain immunological changes associated with PEAV infection.

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