Image_2_Phytohormone Profiling Method for Rice: Effects of GA20ox Mutation on the Gibberellin Content of Japonica Rice Varieties.png
Gibberellins (GAs) are a very important group of phytohormones involved in seed germination, vegetative growth, flowering, and fruit development, being only 4 of the 136 known bioactives: GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7. It has been evidenced that mutations in the OsGA20ox-2 gene produce rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf varieties, which were one of the main pillars of the green revolution. In this work two main objectives were proposed: (i) develop a rapid and broad phytohormone profiling method and (ii) to study the effects on the GA content of the GA20ox-2 mutation in several rice developmental stages using three varieties (tall variety, elite variety, mutated variety). A phytohormone extraction using an SPE step and HPLC-MS/MS detection using a QqQ instrument was determined which resulted in limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for GAs that varied between 0.1–0.7 and 0.3–2.3 pg ⋅ g-1 (f.w.) of rice sample, respectively, allowing highly sensitive phytohormones detection in samples. Moreover, a good reproducibility was obtained for the GAs as relative standard deviations (RSD) for a 40 ng ⋅ mL-1 pattern varied between 0.3 and 0.9%. Notoriously, GA1 was absent in the coleoptile and GA4 was the GA with higher content in the majority of developmental stages. We also observed a large content increase of the four bioactive GAs in the internode of the flag leaf of the mutated variety allowing to reach same height as the elite variety. Therefore, we provide a rapid and broad phytohormonal profiling method and evidence that the GA20ox-2 mutation is not the only factor generating dwarf varieties. To our knowledge, this is the first study that it has been reported such a high number of simultaneously analyzed gibberellins in rice samples (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) in different tissues of different growth stages.