Image_2_Oxidative Stress Activated by Sorafenib Alters the Temozolomide Sensitivity of Human Glioma Cells Through Autophagy and JAK2/STAT3-AIF Axis.jpeg
The development of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioma leads to poor patient prognosis. Sorafenib, a novel diaryl urea compound and multikinase inhibitor, has the ability to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier. However, the effect of sorafenib on glioma cells and the molecular mechanism underlying the ability of sorafenib to enhance the antitumor effects of TMZ remain elusive. Here, we found that sorafenib could enhance the cytotoxic effects of TMZ in glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the combination of sorafenib and TMZ induced mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) translocation from mitochondria to nuclei, and this process was dependent on STAT3 inhibition. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and TMZ inhibited JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 translocation to mitochondria. Inhibition of STAT3 activation promoted the autophagy-associated apoptosis induced by the combination of sorafenib and TMZ. Furthermore, the combined sorafenib and TMZ treatment induced oxidative stress while reactive oxygen species (ROS) clearance reversed the treatment-induced inhibition of JAK2/STAT3. The results indicate that sorafenib enhanced the temozolomide sensitivity of human glioma cells by inducing oxidative stress-mediated autophagy and JAK2/STAT3-AIF axis.