Image_2_Lenalidomide and Programmed Death-1 Blockade Synergistically Enhances the Effects of Dendritic Cell Vaccination in a Model of Murine Myeloma.jpeg (111 kB)

Image_2_Lenalidomide and Programmed Death-1 Blockade Synergistically Enhances the Effects of Dendritic Cell Vaccination in a Model of Murine Myeloma.jpeg

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posted on 18.06.2018 by Manh-Cuong Vo, Sung-Hoon Jung, Tan-Huy Chu, Hyun-Ju Lee, Thangaraj Jaya Lakshmi, Hye-Seong Park, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Joon Haeng Rhee, Je-Jung Lee

The therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may be potentiated in combination with other anticancer therapies that enhance DC function by modulating immune responses and the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of DC vaccination in combination with lenalidomide and programmed death (PD)-1 blockade in a model of murine myeloma. MOPC-315 cell lines were injected subcutaneously to establish myeloma-bearing mice and the following five test groups were established: PBS control, DCs, DCs + lenalidomide, DCs + PD-1 blockade, and DCs + lenalidomide + PD-1 blockade. The combination of DCs plus lenalidomide and PD-1 blockade more potently inhibited tumor growth compared to the other groups. This effect was associated with a reduction in immune suppressor cells (such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, and regulatory T cells) and an increase in immune effector cells [such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and M1 macrophages] in the spleen. Functional activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells were also enhanced by the triple combination. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10, were significantly reduced in the tumor microenvironment. These findings suggest that the combination of DCs plus lenalidomide and PD-1 blockade synergistically establishes a robust anti-myeloma immunity through a two-way mechanism, which inhibits immunosuppressive cells while activating effector cells with superior polarization of the Th1/Th2 balance in favor of the tumor immune response. This result should provide an experimental ground for incorporating check point inhibitors to existing immunotherapeutic modalities against multiple myeloma.

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