Image_2_Improvements in Diurnal Cycle and Its Impact on Seasonal Mean by Incorporating COARE Flux Algorithm in CFS.tif (3.09 MB)
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Image_2_Improvements in Diurnal Cycle and Its Impact on Seasonal Mean by Incorporating COARE Flux Algorithm in CFS.tif

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posted on 02.02.2022, 04:52 by Maheswar Pradhan, Suryachandra A. Rao, Amitabh Bhattacharya, Sridhar Balasubramanian

The variability of predicted variables at daily to seasonal scales in coupled models is primarily governed by surface boundary conditions between the ocean and atmosphere, namely, sea surface temperature (SST), turbulent heat, and momentum fluxes. Although efforts have been made to achieve good accuracy in surface fluxes and SST in observation and reanalysis products, less attention has been paid toward achieving improved accuracy in coupled model simulations. Improper diurnal phase and amplitude in intra-daily SST and precipitation are well-known problems in most global coupled general circulation models, including the Climate Forecast System v2 (CFSv2) model. The present study attempts to improve the representation of ocean-atmosphere surface boundary conditions in CFSv2, primarily used for India's operational forecasts at different temporal/spatial scales. In this direction, the diurnal warm layer and cool skin temperature correction scheme are implemented along with the surface flux parameterization scheme following Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) v 3.0. The coupled model re-forecasts with a revised flux scheme showed better characteristics in various ocean-atmosphere parameters and processes at diurnal and seasonal time scales. At the diurnal scale, the phase and amplitude of intra-daily SST and mixed layer depth variabilities are improved over most tropical oceans. Improved diurnal SSTs helped in enhancing the diurnal range of precipitation by triggering stronger intra-daily convection. The corrected diurnal ocean-atmospheric boundary state translated into a reduction in seasonal mean dry bias over Indian landmass and the wet bias over tropical oceans. Better simulation of non-linearity associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), ENSO-Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR), and IOD-ISMR relation is among the most critical improvements achieved by revising the turbulent flux parameterization. The revised flux scheme showed enhanced prediction skills for tropical SST indices and ISMR.

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