Image_2_Identification of Stress-Related Genes and a Comparative Analysis of the Amino Acid Compositions of Translated Coding Sequences Based on Draft Genome Sequences of Antarctic Yeasts.PDF
Microorganisms inhabiting cold environments have evolved strategies to tolerate and thrive in those extreme conditions, mainly the low temperature that slow down reaction rates. Among described molecular and metabolic adaptations to enable functioning in the cold, there is the synthesis of cold-active proteins/enzymes. In bacterial cold-active proteins, reduced proline content and highly flexible and larger catalytic active sites than mesophylls counterparts have been described. However, beyond the low temperature, microorganisms’ physiological requirements may differ according to their growth velocities, influencing their global protein compositions. This hypothesis was tested in this work using eight cold-adapted yeasts isolated from Antarctica, for which their growth parameters were measured and their draft genomes determined and bioinformatically analyzed. The optimal temperature for yeasts’ growth ranged from 10 to 22°C, and yeasts having similar or same optimal temperature for growth displayed significative different growth rates. The sizes of the draft genomes ranged from 10.7 (Tetracladium sp.) to 30.7 Mb (Leucosporidium creatinivorum), and the GC contents from 37 (Candida sake) to 60% (L. creatinivorum). Putative genes related to various kinds of stress were identified and were especially numerous for oxidative and cold stress responses. The putative proteins were classified according to predicted cellular function and subcellular localization. The amino acid composition was compared among yeasts considering their optimal temperature for growth and growth rates. In several groups of predicted proteins, correlations were observed between their contents of flexible amino acids and both the yeasts’ optimal temperatures for growth and their growth rates. In general, the contents of flexible amino acids were higher in yeasts growing more rapidly as their optimal temperature for growth was lower. The contents of flexible amino acids became lower among yeasts with higher optimal temperatures for growth as their growth rates increased.