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Image_2_Hyperglycemia Promotes Chemoresistance Through the Reduction of the Mitochondrial DNA Damage, the Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL Ratio, and the Cells in Sub-G1 Phase Due to Antitumoral Drugs Induced-Cytotoxicity in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.JPEG
Diabetes and cancer are common, chronic, and potentially fatal diseases that frequently co-exist. Observational studies clearly indicate that the risk of several types of cancer is increased in diabetic patients and a number of cancer types have shown a higher mortality rate in patients with hyperglycemic associated pathologies. This scenario could be due, at least in part, to a lower efficacy of the cancer treatments which needs to be better investigated. Here, we evaluated the effects of a prolonged exposure to high glucose (HG) to the response to chemotherapy on human colon adenocarcinoma HT29 and LOVO cell lines. We observed that hyperglycemia protected against the decreased cell viability and cytotoxicity and preserved from the mitochondrial DNA lesions induced by doxorubicin (DOX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatments by lowering ROS production. In HT29 cells the amount of intracellular DOX and its nuclear localization were not modified by HG incubation in terms of Pgp, BCRP, MRP1, 5 and 8 activity and gene expression. On the contrary, in LOVO cells, the amount of intracellular DOX was significantly decreased after a bolus of DOX in HG condition and the expression and activity of MPR1 was increased, suggesting that HG promotes drug chemoresistance in both HT29 and LOVO cells, but in a different way. In both cell types, HG condition prevented the susceptibility to apoptosis by decreasing the ratio Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL and diminished the level of cytosolic cytochrome c and the cleavage of full length of PARP induced by DOX and 5-FU. Finally, hyperglycemia reduced cell death by decreasing the cell percentage in sub-G1 peak induced by DOX (via a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase) and 5-FU (via a cell cycle arrest in the S phase) in HT29 and LOVO cells. Taken together, our data showed that a prolonged exposure to HG protects human colon adenocarcinoma cells from the cytotoxic effects of two widely used chemotherapeutic drugs, impairing the effectiveness of the chemotherapy itself.